Someone who is trained in the law, and who can act on behalf of a client in legal matters representing the client in court. A lawyer may also give advise to clients in legal matters. Legal advice is the application of principles of law to the facts of a client's case in order to advise the client about appropriate courses of action.
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What scope of action is covered by a lawyer?
A significant debate arose and to some extent persists as to whether the law acts merely as an imperative, e.g. thou shalt not kill, or in fact extends or should extend rights to individuals, as in cases of wills, trusts, and estates. At different times and in various places the law has certainly embodied widely varying concepts. For example, there are countries where the conveyance of real property is outside the purview of a lawyer.
More recently, patents, trademarks, and other types of intellectual property have become the focus of much legal activity, and in the United States this is a rapidly evolving area of law.
Where did law come from?
The development of law is closely connected with evolving civilizations. Most importantly for us, during the 6th century AD in the Eastern Roman Empire, the Emperor Justinian codified and consolidated the laws that had existed in Rome so that what remained was one twentieth of the mass of legal texts from before. This became known as the Corpus Juris Civilis. this was an attempt to restore the law to its golden age in Rome. The following links provide diverse views of the law in various times and places, and are well worth a look.